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  • Pétrus Pomerol.
  • Wine - Wikipedia.
  • Beaujolais Nouveau Day.
  • Goût de Diamants - the world’s most expensive champagne.
  • Les Caves de Taillevent, 199 Rue du Faubourg Saint-Honoré, 75008 Paris, France.
  • Robert Parker - leading U.S. wine critic with an international influence. His wine ratings on a 100-point scale and his newsletter The Wine Advocate, with his particular stylistic preferences and notetaking vocabulary, have become influential in American wine buying and are therefore a major factor in setting the prices for newly released Bordeaux wines.
  • Pétrus Pomerol.
  • French vineyard.
  • Château Lafite Rothschild, 33250 Pauillac, France.
  • 300 bottle collection of Grand Vin de Lafite Rothschild sold for $540,000 (2011).
  • Château Margaux, Domaine de Château Margaux, 33460 Margaux, France.
  • Château Mouton Rothschild winecellar.
  • Châteauneuf-du-Pape vineyard & castle, southern Rhône region, France.
  • Orange Vignoble AOC Châteauneuf-du-Pape vineyard in the Rhône wine region in southeastern France.
  • Beaujolais Nouveau Day.
  • Veuve Clicquot Ponsardin champagne bottles.
  • Traditional wine cellar.
  • Modern wine cellar designs.
  • Linley bespoke wine cabinets made in American walnut.
  • Wine tasting.
  • Dom Pérignon vintage champagne produced by the champagne house Moët & Chandon.
  • Cristal champagne.
  • Sotheby's wine auction.
  • La Bordeauthèque, Galeries Lafayette, 40 Boulevard Haussmann, 75009 Paris, France - world's largest Bordeaux wine store.
  • The most expensive champagne brands in the world.

Wines | Champagnes | Wine Merchants and Storage

10 Best Champagnes 10 Most Expensive Wines Champagnes: A-Z
French Wines Media Sparkling Wines
Wine Auctions Wine Merchants Wine Storage

"I only drink champagne when I'm happy and when I'm sad. Sometimes I drink it when I'm alone. When I have company I consider it obligatory. I trifle with it if I'm not hungry and drink it when I am. Otherwise I never touch it - unless I'm thirsty." - Madame Lilly Bolinger.

"Wine is the most civilized thing in the world." - Ernest Hemingway.

"Good wine is a good familiar creature if it be well used. " - quote from Shakespeare's play Othello, Act 2, Scene III.

"Wine makes a man more pleased with himself; I do not say it makes him more pleasing to others." - Samuel Johnson.

"Wine from long habit has become an indispensable for my health." - Thomas Jefferson.

"I drink Champagne when I win, to celebrate . . . and I drink Champagne when I lose, to console myself." - Napoleon Bonaparte.

"Champagne is the wine of civilization and the oil of government." - Winston Churchill.

"My only regret in life is that I did not drink more Champagne." - John Meynard Keynes.

"Too much of anything is bad, but too much Champagne is just right." - F. Scott Fitzgerald.

WINE is an alcoholic beverage typically made of fermented grape juice. The natural chemical balance of grapes is such that they can ferment without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes or other nutrients. Wine is produced by fermenting crushed grapes using various types of yeast. Yeast consumes the sugars found in the grapes and converts them into alcohol. Different varieties of grapes and strains of yeasts are used depending on the type of wine being produced.

Wine has a rich history dating back to around 6000 BC and is thought to have originated in areas now within the borders of Georgia and Iran. Wine probably appeared in Europe at about 4500 BC in what is now Bulgaria and Greece, and was very common in ancient Greece, Thrace and Rome. Wine has also played an important role in religion throughout history. The Greek god Dionysos and the Roman equivalent Bacchus represented wine, and the drink is also used in Christian and Jewish ceremonies such as the Eucharist (also called the Holy Communion) and Kiddush.

France has various appellation systems based on the concept of terroir, with classifications ranging from Vin de Table ("table wine") at the bottom, through Vin de Pays and Appellation d'Origine Vin Délimité de Qualité Supérieure (AOVDQS) up to Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée (AOC) or similar, depending on the region. Portugal has something similar and, in fact, pioneered this technique back in 1756 with a royal charter which created the "Demarcated Douro Region" and regulated wine production and trade. Germany did likewise in 2002, although their system has not yet achieved the authority of those of the other countries'. Spain, Greece and Italy have classifications which are based on a dual system of region of origin and quality of product.

A "vintage wine" is one made from grapes that were all or mostly grown in a particular year, and labeled as such. Most countries allow a vintage wine to include a portion that is not from the labeled vintage. Variations in a wine's character from year to year can include subtle differences in color, palate, nose, body and development. High-quality red table wines can improve in flavor with age if properly stored. Consequently, it is not uncommon for wine enthusiasts and traders to save bottles of an especially good vintage wine for future consumption.

CHAMPAGNE is a sparkling wine produced by inducing the in-bottle secondary fermentation of the wine to effect carbonation. It is produced exclusively within the Champagne region of France, from which it takes its name.

Champagne first gained world renown because of its association with the anointment of French kings. Royalty from throughout Europe spread the message of the unique sparkling wine from Champagne and its association with luxury and power. The leading manufacturers devoted considerable energy to creating a history and identity for their wine, associating it and themselves with nobility and royalty. Through advertising and packaging they sought to associate Champagne with high luxury, festivities and rites of passage. Their efforts coincided with an emerging middle class that was looking for ways to spend its money on symbols of upward mobility.

The Romans were the first to plant vineyards in this area of northeast France with the region being cultivated by at least the 5th century, possibly earlier. Wines from the Champagne region were known before medieval times. Churches owned vineyards and monks produced wine for use in the sacrament of Eucharist. French kings were traditionally anointed in Reims and Champagne wine was served as part of coronation festivities. The Champenois were envious of the reputation of the wines made by their Burgundian neighbours to the south and sought to produce wines of equal acclaim. However, the northerly climate of the region gave the Champenois a unique set of challenges in making red wine. At the far extremes of sustainable viticulture, the grapes would struggle to ripen fully and often would have bracing levels of acidity and low sugar levels. The wines would be lighter bodied and thinner than the Burgundy wines they were seeking to outdo.

Contrary to legend and popular belief, Dom Perignon did not invent sparkling wine. The oldest recorded sparkling wine is Blanquette de Limoux, which was apparently invented by Benedictine Monks in the Abbey of Saint Hilaire near Carcassonne in 1531. Over a century later, the English scientist and physician Christopher Merret documented the addition of sugar to a finished wine to create a second fermentation six years before Dom Perignon set foot in the Abbey of Hautvillers and almost 40 years before it was claimed that the famed Benedictine monk invented Champagne. Merret presented the Royal Society with a paper in which he detailed what is now called méthode champenoise in 1662.

Although Dom Pérignon did not invent Champagne, he did develop many advances in production of the drink, including holding the cork in place with a wire collar (muselet) to withstand the fermentation pressure. In France, the first sparkling Champagne was created accidentally; its pressure led it to be called "the devil's wine" (le vin du diable) as bottles exploded or the cork jolted away. Even when it was deliberately produced as a sparkling wine, Champagne was for a very long time made by the méthode rurale, where the wine was bottled before the only fermentation had finished. Champagne did not utilize the méthode champenoise until the 19th century, approximately 200 years after Christopher Merret documented the process. The nineteenth century saw an explosive growth in Champagne production going from a regional production of 300,000 bottles a year in 1800 to 20 million bottles in 1850.

  • 23 WINE PUBLICATIONS - subscription channels.
  • eRobertParker.com - "The Independent Consumer's Guide to Fine Wines."
  • FINE WINE MAGAZINE - "The World of Fine Wine." ("The first cultural journal of the wine world.", Hugh Johnson, OBE).
  • FINE WINE MAGAZINES - distributing 11 luxury wine magazines in 6 languages to 85 countries.
  • GAYOT - "The guide to the good life." Wine tastings and reviews.
  • GRAPE STORIES - wine reviews & cellar management tools.
  • LETTS WINE CELLAR & LABEL BOOK - includes an introduction to wine collecting, vocabulary, food & region guide, wine score sheets, cellar record pages and varietal tasting notes.
  • NOVUS VINUM - Gayot Publications has expanded its gastronomic empire to include passion for the vine. The definitive site for anyone with an interest in wine, Novus Vinum offers up-to-date information on all aspects of the ever-changing wine world.
  • THE WINE ADVOCATE - since 1978. The independent consumer's guide to fine wine published by leading U.S. wine critic Robert M. Palmer.
  • THE WINE ANORAK - online wine magazine.
  • WINE & SPIRIT - British monthly magazine on wine, spirits, beers and cocktails.
  • WINE & SPIRITS - American wine magazine, publishes eight issues annually.
  • WINE SPECTATOR - since 1976. Upmarket wine and food magazine.
  • WINE X MAGAZINE - offers info on wine, food and "an intelligent slice of vice" for generation Xers.
    Wine Merchants
  • 1855 - the largest choice of wines on the Internet. More than 25,000 references of wines.
  • ACKER MERRALL & CONDIT - since 1820. "America's Oldest and Finest wine shop."
  • AUSSIE WINES - wines & liquors.
  • Berry Bros. & Rudd, 3 St James's Street, London SW1A 1EG, England, U.K.
  • BERRY BROS. & RUDD - established in 1698. Britain's oldest wine and spirit merchant. Sells wine from around the world, including en primeur wines from Bordeaux, Burgundy, the Rhône and Italy. The only company to have five Masters of Wine in their ranks.
  • La Bordeauthèque, Galeries Lafayette, 40 Boulevard Haussmann, 75009 Paris, France.
  • BordeauxthÈque - world's largest Bordeaux wine store (owned and run by Duclot, the Bordeaux merchant house owned by Jean Francois Moueix, owner of Pétrus) in Paris flagship luxury department store Galeries Lafayette, 40 Boulevard Haussmann, 75009 Paris.
  • CAVISSIMA - online French wine merchant and wine cellaring and management service. Elected France's 'Meilleur Sommelier of 2007'.
  • ENVIE DE CHAMPAGNE - French online champagne shop.
  • EVINITÉ FRANCE - "International specialist of fine French wines."
  • FORTNUM & MASON - Piccadilly since 1707.
  • Golden Vintage - "The world's finest wines at the best prices." Vega Sicilia, Romanée Conti, Pétrus, Lafite Rothschild, Cristal Roederer, Chartreuse de Tarragona.
  • JEAN-PIERRE MOUEIX - founded in 1937. Saint-Emilion and Pomerol vintages, e.g. Château Lafleur and Château Le Gay (neighbours of Château Pétrus).
  • JUSTERINI & BROOKS - established 1749.
  • LAVINIA - French wines online.
  • Les Caves de Taillevent, 199, rue du Faubourg Saint-Honoré, 75008 Paris, France.
  • LES CAVES DE TAILLEVENT - 199, rue du Faubourg Saint-Honoré, 75008 Paris, France.
  • LØGISMOSE VIN - Danish online wine shop.
  • MILLÉSIMA - French wines online.
  • NICKOLLS & PERKS - wine shippers since 1797.
  • PLAYBOY WINE CLUB - Buy Wine Online.
  • SCHNEIDER'S OF CAPITOL HILL - fine wines and spirits.
  • SHOPPERS VINEYARD - committed to providing you with the finest selection of unique wines and quality spirits available.
  • SOTHEBY'S WINE - merchants & auctioneers.
  • TANNERS WINE MERCHANTS - established 1842.
  • TAYLOR & NORTON WINE MERCHANTS - an early pioneer of wine retailing on the Internet since 1994 carries not only the finest California wines, but also fine wines & rare wines from around the world.
  • THE DISTINCT WHISKEY COMPANY - "Iconic Spirits for the Few." Also exquisite selection of the finest champagnes. The Distinct Whiskey Company specialises in a very niche market of extreme high quality white and brown spirits and luxury accompaniments. We are the world’s finest spirits luxury club concept. You will find a unique blend of the world’s best product from all parts of the globe."
  • VANQUISH - London’s leading Luxury Drinks Specialist to the UK on-trade, international institutions and private clients, focussing on the sale of champagne, premium spirits and fine wine.
  • VIN MALIN - French online store.
  • VSF - "Fine wines for fine yachts. We actually hold stocks of tens of thousands of bottles of the world’s best wines. We offer an unparalleled provisioning service with wine and food to luxury yachts in the Mediterranean area."
  • WALLY'S WINE AND SPIRITS - "Quality and Service Since 1968."
  • WHISKYFINDER - price search engine and an information database on all things whisky. Find vodka, cognac, beer, wine or champagne, as well as any other type of alcohol. We try to crawl as many online stores as we can find to get you the best prices on drink, and the list is growing ever larger.
  • WINE DEALS - "Get amazing wine collection and deals at great wine deals website. Simply select and order your favorite wine and get FREE Delivery!"
  • WINE HOUSE - huge selection of old and rare wine, and spirits.
  • WINE.COM - "The #1 online wine store."
  • WINEANDCO.COM - French online store.
  • WINEBID.COM - the largest Internet auction for fine and rare wines.
    Wine Storage
  • Traditional wine cellar.
  • 17,020 Wine Cellar Design Photos - "Wine Cellar Design Ideas, Pictures, Remodels and Decor."
  • CELLAR TRACKER - "Wine Reviews & Cellar Management Tools."
  • Letts Wine Cellar & Label Book.
  • LETTS WINE CELLAR & LABEL BOOK - includes an introduction to wine collecting, vocabulary, food & region guide, wine score sheets, cellar record pages and varietal tasting notes.
  • STORAGE OF WINE - Wikipedia.
  • WINE CELLAR - Wikipedia.
    • APEX - CellarTec Signatur Cooling Systems.
    • APEX WINE CELLARS - custom wine cellars.
    • BUBEN & ZÖRWEG - since 1995.
    • CAPLE - "At home with style."
    • FALCON - "The Professional's Choice."
    • GE MONOGRAM Reserves - wine refrigerators.
    • GORENJE - wine storage and drinks chiller.
    • HOTPOINT - Wine Cooler Fridge.
    • Liebherr WKes  653 Grand Cru wine storage cabinet.
    • LIEBHERR - multi temperature wine cabinets, wine storage cabinets & wine cabinets vinidor.
    • LINLEY - bespoke wine cabinets.
    • MIELE - since 1899. "Immer Besser." Wine storage units.
    • RANGEMASTER - "Built from experience." Selection of Wine Storage Units to keep your prized collection at optimum conditions and temperature. Key features include UV-resistant glass doors, heavy-duty shelving and vibration-free operation.
    • SAMSUNG WINE CELLAR - compact size fridge. The premium wine cellar furnished with upgraded multi-technology, larger capacity, and prestigious design.
    • SUB-ZERO Wolf - wine storage.
    • VIKING - wine cellar storage systems.
    • Vin de Garde - wine cellars, custom cellars, cooling units, wineracks.
    • VINOTEMP INTERNATIONAL - custom wine cellars, wine racks, wine coolers, wine storage.
    • Vintage View - Clean. Simple. Elegant. "It is our mission to make the VintageView Wine Storage System the industry standard for wine storage and display throughout the world."
    • WINE CELLAR INNOVATIONS - custom designed wine cellars and wine rooms.
    • WINE HARDWARE - "You've got the wine, we've got the hardware." Whatever your budget, whatever the size of your collection, Wine Hardware carries the very best in refrigerated wine cellars and cabinets.
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