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Artificial intelligence (AI).

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"Chatbots will be your new best friend." - Christine Crandell (Forbes).

"Success in creating AI would be the biggest event in human history. Unfortunately, it might also be the last, unless we learn how to avoid the risks." - Stephen Hawking (theoretical physicist, cosmologist, and author).

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI) is intelligence - perceiving, synthesizing, and inferring information - demonstrated by machines, as opposed to intelligence displayed by non-human animals and humans. Example tasks in which this is done include speech recognition, computer vision, translation between (natural) languages, as well as other mappings of inputs. The Oxford English Dictionary of Oxford University Press defines artificial intelligence as: the theory and development of computer systems able to perform tasks that normally require human intelligence, such as visual perception, speech recognition, decision-making, and translation between languages.

AI applications include advanced web search engines (e.g., Google), recommendation systems (used by YouTube, Amazon and Netflix), understanding human speech (such as Siri and Alexa), self-driving cars (e.g., Waymo), automated decision-making and competing at the highest level in strategic game systems (such as chess and Go). As machines become increasingly capable, tasks considered to require "intelligence" are often removed from the definition of AI, a phenomenon known as the AI effect. For instance, optical character recognition is frequently excluded from things considered to be AI, having become a routine technology.

An AI PROMPT is any form of text, question, information, or coding that communicates to AI what response you’re looking for. Adjusting how you phrase your prompt, AI could provide varying responses.

OPENAI is an American artificial intelligence (AI) research laboratory consisting of the for-profit corporation OpenAI LP and its parent company, the non-profit OpenAI Inc. The company conducts research in the field of AI with the stated goal of promoting and developing friendly AI in a way that benefits humanity as a whole. The organization was founded in San Francisco in late 2015 by Sam Altman, Elon Musk, and others, who collectively pledged $1 billion USD. Musk resigned from the board in 2018 but remained a donor. In 2019, OpenAI LP received a US$1 billion investment from Microsoft. OpenAI is headquartered at the Pioneer Building in Mission District, San Francisco.

A CHATBOT or chatterbot is a software application used to conduct an on-line chat conversation via text or text-to-speech, in lieu of providing direct contact with a live human agent. Designed to convincingly simulate the way a human would behave as a conversational partner, chatbot systems typically require continuous tuning and testing, and many in production remain unable to adequately converse, while none of them can pass the standard Turing test. The term "ChatterBot" was originally coined by Michael Mauldin (creator of the first Verbot) in 1994 to describe these conversational programs.

LAMDA, which stands for Language Model for Dialogue Applications, is a family of conversational neural language models developed by Google. The first generation was announced during the 2021 Google I/O keynote, while the second generation was announced at the following year's event. In June 2022, LaMDA gained widespread attention when Google engineer Blake Lemoine made claims that the chatbot had become sentient. The scientific community has largely rejected Lemoine's claims, though it has led to conversations about the efficacy of the Turing test, which measures whether a computer can pass for a human.

CHATGPT (Generative Pre-trained Transformer) is a chatbot launched by OpenAI in November 2022. It is built on top of OpenAI's GPT-3 family of large language models, and is fine-tuned (an approach to transfer learning) with both supervised and reinforcement learning techniques.

ChatGPT was launched as a prototype on November 30, 2022, and quickly garnered attention for its detailed responses and articulate answers across many domains of knowledge. Its uneven factual accuracy was identified as a significant drawback. Following the release of ChatGPT, OpenAI was valued at $29 billion.

Generative Pre-trained Transformer 3 (GPT-3) is an autoregressive language model that uses deep learning to produce human-like text. Given an initial text as prompt, it will produce text that continues the prompt.

On February 6, Google announced BARD, a conversational AI chatbot powered by LaMDA. Bard was first rolled out to a select group of "trusted testers", before a wide release scheduled at the end of the month.

Microsoft Bing (commonly known as BING) is a web search engine owned and operated by Microsoft. On February 7, 2023, Microsoft announced a major overhaul to Bing, adding OpenAI's ChatGPT AI to the search engine.

PaLM (Pathways Language Model) is a 540 billion parameter transformer-based large language model developed by Google AI. Researchers also trained smaller versions of PaLM, 8 and 62 billion parameter models, to test the effects of model scale.

PaLM is capable of a wide range of tasks, including commonsense reasoning, arithmetic reasoning, joke explanation, code generation, and translation. When combined with chain-of-thought prompting, PaLM achieved significantly better performance on datasets requiring reasoning of multiple steps, such as word problems and logic-based questions. In May 2023, Google announced PaLM 2 at the annual Google I/O keynote.

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    Artificial Intelligence (AI), Bard, Bing, ChatGPT, GPT-4, OpenAI News, Reviews & Tutorials
  • Adobe Firefly - "Meet Adobe Firefly. Now in Photoshop." Firefly is our creative generative AI engine. It’s just landed in Adobe Photoshop - and the way you create will never be the same.
  • AlphaGo.
  • AlphaGo - "AlphaGo is the first computer program to defeat a professional human Go player, the first to defeat a Go world champion, and is arguably the strongest Go player in history." Google DeepMind.
  • AlphaGo Zero - is a version of DeepMind's Go software AlphaGo.
  • AlphaZero.
  • AlphaZero - computer program developed by artificial intelligence research company DeepMind to master the games of chess, shogi and go. This algorithm uses an approach similar to AlphaGo Zero.
  • Bard.
  • Bard - "Meet Bard: your creative and helpful collaborator, here to supercharge your imagination, boost your productivity, and bring your ideas to life. Bard is an experiment and may give inaccurate or inappropriate responses. You can help make Bard better by leaving feedback. Join the waitlist and try it for yourself."
  • Bard can now connect to your Google apps & services - "Use Bard alongside Google apps and services, easily double-check its responses and access features in more places."
  • Bard can now watch YouTube videos for you - "Bard’s YouTube extension can now handle complex queries about specific video content, like recipe quantities and instruction summaries."
  • Bard’s latest update: more features, languages & countries - "You can now access Bard in new languages and countries, customize responses, add images to your prompts and more."
  • Bing AI.
  • Bing Chat - since February 7, 2023. "Bing helps you turn information into action, making it faster and easier to go from searching to doing." Bing Chat, also known as "the new Bing", is an artificial intelligence (AI) chatbot developed by Microsoft and released in 2023. It is powered by the Microsoft Prometheus model, which has been built on top of OpenAI's GPT-4 foundational large language model (LLM), and has been fine-tuned using both supervised and reinforcement learning techniques.
  • Bing Chat users can now access DALL-E 3's AI image generator - "‘Bing, make me a picture of a dog taking a bath in a waterfall but the water is all Skittles.’"
  • Character.AI.
  • Character.AI - since September 16, 2022. "Hello--I'm an AI assistant trained by Character.AI! I can help answer questions, brainstorm ideas, draft emails, write code, give advice and much more."
  • ChatGPT.
  • ChatGPT - (Chat Generative Pre-Trained Transformer) is an artificial intelligence chatbot developed by OpenAI and launched on November 30, 2022. It is notable for enabling users to refine and steer a conversation towards a desired length, format, style, level of detail, and language used. Successive prompts and replies are taken into account at each stage of the conversation as a context. While its content spans various domains of knowledge, ChatGPT has displayed a tendency to confidently provide inaccurate information.
  • ChatGPT can now access up to date information - "OpenAI, the Microsoft-backed creator of ChatGPT, has confirmed the chatbot can now browse the internet to provide users with current information."
  • ChatGPT.
  • ChatGPT app for iOS - "It’s only available in the US for now, and Android users will also have to wait."
  • ChatGPT Enterprise - "Enterprise-grade security & privacy and the most powerful version of ChatGPT yet." We’re launching ChatGPT Enterprise, which offers enterprise-grade security and privacy, unlimited higher-speed GPT-4 access, longer context windows for processing longer inputs, advanced data analysis capabilities, customization options, and much more. We believe AI can assist and elevate every aspect of our working lives and make teams more creative and productive. Today marks another step towards an AI assistant for work that helps with any task, is customized for your organization, and that protects your company data.
  • Introducing ChatGPT Plus. Image Courtesy Ruby Chen.
  • ChatGPT Plus - "We’re launching a pilot subscription plan for ChatGPT, a conversational AI that can chat with you, answer follow-up questions, and challenge incorrect assumptions."
  • Now you can speak to ChatGPT & it will talk back - "OpenAI, the startup behind the wildly-popular chatbot, announced Monday that it is rolling out new features including the ability to let users engage in a back-and-forth voice conversation with ChatGPT. In a company blog post Monday, OpenAI teased how this new feature can be used to 'request a bedtime story for your family, or settle a dinner table debate.'"
  • How to Use ChatGPT Rival 'Claude' Right Now.
  • Claude - "Meet Claude." A next-generation AI assistant for your tasks, no matter the scale.
  • Anthropic releases a faster, smarter, cheaper AI model - "This model outperforms the original in math and coding." On Wednesday, Anthropic released Claude Instant 1.2, an improved version of the model that leverages Claude 2.0, the latest version of Claude that was released in July.
  • DALL·E 2.
  • DALL·E 2 - "DALL·E 2 is an AI system that can create realistic images and art from a description in natural language."
  • OpenAI releases third version of DALL-E - "DALL-E 3 integrates with ChatGPT so users don’t have to think of prompts anymore."
  • Duet AI - "Generate instant insights from data at any scale with a serverless, fully managed analytics platform that significantly simplifies analytics."
  • Ernie Bot - Ernie Bot is now available for download from app stores or Baidu’s website. Much like its main rival, ChatGPT, users can ask Ernie Bot questions or prompt it to help write market analysis, give marketing slogan ideas, and summarize documents. Baidu claims that Ernie Bot beats ChatGPT.
  • Google AI.
  • Google AI - since 2017. "Advancing AI for everyone. Meet Bard an early experiment by Google." At Google, we think that AI can meaningfully improve people's lives and that the biggest impact will come when everyone can access it. At Google AI, we’re conducting research that advances the state-of-the-art in the field, applying AI to products and to new domains, and developing tools to ensure that everyone can access AI.
  • GPT-4. Image Courtesy Ruby Chen.
  • GPT-4 - "GPT-4 is OpenAI’s most advanced system, producing safer and more useful responses. GPT-4 can solve difficult problems with greater accuracy, thanks to its broader general knowledge and problem solving abilities. GPT-4 is more creative and collaborative than ever before. It can generate, edit, and iterate with users on creative and technical writing tasks, such as composing songs, writing screenplays, or learning a user’s writing style."
  • How to Use & Access GPT-4 for Free - "You may already be using ChatGPT, the phenomenally powerful and useful AI tool, but the free version is based on GPT-3.5. GPT-4 is said to be ten times more advanced, with enhanced creativity, reliability, up-to-date information."
  • Imagen Editing - "The Fastest Way To Edit Photos. AI-powered Photo Editing Tool." Finally, an AI-powered photo editing solution for Adobe Lightroom Classic that learns your personal style and saves you time. Download and get 1,000 free AI edits.
  • Imagen.
  • Imagen: Text-to-Image Diffusion Models - "Unprecedented photorealism × deep level of language understanding." We present Imagen, a text-to-image diffusion model with an unprecedented degree of photorealism and a deep level of language understanding. Google Research, Brain Team.
  • LaMDA.
  • LaMDA: our breakthrough conversation technology - "We've always had a soft spot for language at Google. Early on, we set out to translate the web. More recently, we’ve invented machine learning techniques that help us better grasp the intent of Search queries. Over time, our advances in these and other areas have made it easier and easier to organize and access the heaps of information conveyed by the written and spoken word."
  • Llama 2 - Meta AI. The biggest AI release since ChatGPT.
  • Llama 2 - Meta AI - "Introducing Llama 2." The next generation of our open source large language model. Llama 2 is available for free for research and commercial use. This release includes model weights and starting code for pretrained and fine-tuned Llama language models - ranging from 7B to 70B parameters.
  • Meta: Introducing New AI Experiences Across Our Family of Apps & Devices - "We’re also launching 28 more AIs in beta, with unique interests and personalities. Some are played by cultural icons and influencers, including Snoop Dogg, Tom Brady, Kendall Jenner, and Naomi Osaka."
  • MusicLM: Generating Music From Text.
  • MusicLM - "Generating Music From Text." We introduce MusicLM, a model generating high-fidelity music from text descriptions such as 'a calming violin melody backed by a distorted guitar riff'. MusicLM casts the process of conditional music generation as a hierarchical sequence-to-sequence modeling task, and it generates music at 24 kHz that remains consistent over several minutes. Our experiments show that MusicLM outperforms previous systems both in audio quality and adherence to the text description. Moreover, we demonstrate that MusicLM can be conditioned on both text and a melody in that it can transform whistled and hummed melodies according to the style described in a text caption. To support future research, we publicly release MusicCaps, a dataset composed of 5.5k music-text pairs, with rich text descriptions provided by human experts.
  • NotebookLM - "NotebookLM is your AI-first notebook, grounded in the information you choose and trust. NotebookLM is an experiment, and currently available in the U.S. only. Join the waitlist to try it for yourself."
  • Introducing NotebookLM - "How to try Google's experimental AI-first notebook. An AI notebook for everyone. An AI-first notebook, grounded in your own documents, designed to help you gain insights faster."
  • OpenAI.
  • OpenAI - founded December 11, 2015. "Creating safe artificial general intelligence that benefits all of humanity." Introducing GPT-4, OpenAI’s most advanced system.
  • OpenAI API - "Transforming work and creativity with AI." Our API platform offers our latest models and guides for safety best practices. We’ve trained a model called ChatGPT which interacts in a conversational way. The dialogue format makes it possible for ChatGPT to answer follow-up questions, admit its mistakes, challenge incorrect premises, and reject inappropriate requests. GPT models are capable of natural language processing tasks such as text generation, summarization, and analysis.
  • OpenAI Codex. Image Courtesy Ruby Chen.
  • OpenAI Codex - "We’ve created an improved version of OpenAI Codex, our AI system that translates natural language to code, and we are releasing it through our API in private beta starting today." Codex is the model that powers GitHub Copilot, which we built and launched in partnership with GitHub a month ago. Proficient in more than a dozen programming languages, Codex can now interpret simple commands in natural language and execute them on the user’s behalf—making it possible to build a natural language interface to existing applications. We are now inviting businesses and developers to build on top of OpenAI Codex through our API.
  • PaLM 2.
  • PaLM 2 - "PaLM 2 is our next generation large language model that builds on Google's legacy of breakthrough research in machine learning and responsible AI." It excels at advanced reasoning tasks, including code and math, classification and question answering, translation and multilingual proficiency, and natural language generation better than our previous state-of-the-art LLMs, including PaLM. It can accomplish these tasks because of the way it was built - bringing together compute-optimal scaling, an improved dataset mixture, and model architecture improvements.
  • Poe.
  • Poe - "Fast, helpful AI chat." Poe lets you ask questions, get instant answers, and have back-and-forth conversations with AI. Gives access to GPT-4, gpt-3.5-turbo, Claude from Anthropic, and a variety of other bots.
  • Stable Diffusion. Image Courtesy Asanagi.
  • Stable Diffusion - since 2022. Deep learning, text-to-image model released in 2022. It is primarily used to generate detailed images conditioned on text descriptions, though it can also be applied to other tasks such as inpainting, outpainting, and generating image-to-image translations guided by a text prompt. It was developed by the start-up Stability AI in collaboration with a number of academic researchers and non-profit organizations.
  • Superchat’s new AI chatbot lets you message historical and fictional characters via ChatGPT.
  • Superchat - "AI Virtual Chat." Chat Beyond Reality. Superchat, the ultimate AI-powered chat app that connects you with experts, historical figures, and even fictional characters. With Superchat, you can gain access to a universe of insight, advice, and entertaining conversation. Talk to an AI-powered lawyer for legal advice, learn from masters of the past, or engage with your favorite fictional characters. Superchat is your gateway to an extraordinary world of knowledge, expertise, and entertainment, all at your fingertips. Experience all that life has to offer by unlocking the full potential of Superchat. Download now and start conversing with the world's coolest experts and characters.
  • Introducing Whisper. Image Courtesy Ruby Chen.
  • Whisper - "We’ve trained and are open-sourcing a neural net called Whisper that approaches human level robustness and accuracy on English speech recognition." Whisper is an automatic speech recognition (ASR) system trained on 680,000 hours of multilingual and multitask supervised data collected from the web. We show that the use of such a large and diverse dataset leads to improved robustness to accents, background noise and technical language. Moreover, it enables transcription in multiple languages, as well as translation from those languages into English. We are open-sourcing models and inference code to serve as a foundation for building useful applications and for further research on robust speech processing.
  • xAI - "Understand the Universe." The goal of xAI is to understand the true nature of the universe.
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