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British architect Norman Foster, Baron Foster of Thames Bank (1935-).

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"Architecture is the art of capturing noble simplicity." - Jørn Utzon.

An ARCHITECT is a person trained and licensed to plan, design, and oversee the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to provide services in connection with the design and construction of buildings and the space within the site surrounding the buildings, that have as their principal purpose human occupancy or use. Professionally, an architect's decisions affect public safety, and thus an architect must undergo specialized training consisting of advanced education and a practicum (or internship) for practical experience to earn a license to practice architecture. Practical, technical, and academic requirements for becoming an architect vary by jurisdiction.

Throughout ancient and medieval history, most architectural design and construction was carried out by artisans—such as stone masons and carpenters, rising to the role of master builder. Until modern times there was no clear distinction between architect and engineer. In Europe, the titles architect and engineer were primarily geographical variations that referred to the same person, often used interchangeably.

It is suggested that various developments in technology and mathematics allowed the development of the professional 'gentleman' architect, separate from the hands-on craftsman. Paper was not used in Europe for drawing until the 1400s, but became increasingly available after 1500. Pencils were used more often for drawing by 1600. The availability of both allowed pre-construction drawings to be made by professionals. Concurrently, the introduction of linear perspective and innovations such as the use of different projections to describe a three-dimensional building in two dimensions, together with an increased understanding of dimensional accuracy, helped building designers communicate their ideas. However, the development was gradual. Until the 1700s buildings continued to be designed and set-out by craftsmen, with the exception of high status projects.

In most developed countries, only qualified persons with appropriate licensure, certification, or registration with a relevant body, often governmental may legally practice architecture. Such licensure usually requires an accredited university degree, successful completion of exams, and a training period. The use of terms and titles, and the representation of oneself as an architect is restricted to licensed individuals by law, although in general, derivatives such as architectural designer are not legally protected.

To practice architecture implies the ability to practice independently of supervision. The term building design professional (or Design professional), by contrast, is a much broader term that includes professionals who practice independently under an alternate profession, such as engineering professionals, or those who assist in the practice architecture under the supervision of a licensed architect, such as architectural technologists and intern architects. In many places, independent, non-licensed individuals may perform design services outside the professional restrictions, such design houses and other smaller structures.

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    Architect News, Reviews & Resources
  • Le Corbusier (1887-1965).
  • A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

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  • A. JAMES SPEYER - (1913-1986).
  • El Solano, 720 South Ocean Boulevard, Palm Beach, FL 33480, U.S.A. Designed by Addison Mizner in 1919.
  • Addison Mizner - (1872-1933). American resort architect whose Mediterranean Revival and Spanish Colonial Revival style interpretations left an indelible stamp on South Florida, where it continues to inspire architects and land developers.
  • ADOLF LOOS - (1870-1933).
  • Albert Kahn - (1869-1942). Was the foremost American industrial architect of his day. He is sometimes called the "architect of Detroit". As of 2006, approximately 60 Kahn buildings were listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
  • ALVAR AALTO - (1898-1976). Finnish architect and designer. His work includes architecture, furniture, textiles and glassware. What is typical for his entire career, however, is a concern for design as a Gesamtkunstwerk, a total work of art; whereby he – together with his first wife Aino Aalto – would design not just the building, but give special treatments to the interior surfaces and design furniture, lamps, and furnishings and glassware.
  • Villa Capra 'La Rotonda', Vicenza, Italy designed by Andrea Palladio. Photo by Stefan Bauer.
  • ANDREA PALLADIO - (1508-1580). Italian architect active in the Republic of Venice.
  • ANDRÉ LE NÔTRE - (1613-1700). French landscape architect and the principal gardener of King Louis XIV of France.
  • Petit Trianon located on the grounds of the Palace of Versailles in Versailles, France designed by Ange-Jacques Gabriel (1698-1782).
  • Ange-Jacques Gabriel - (1698-1782). The most prominent French architect of his generation.
  • Sagrada Família (Barcelona, Spain) by Antoni Gaudi (1852-1926).
  • ANTONI GAUDI - (1852-1926). Architect of the Basílica i Temple Expiatori de la Sagrada Família, commonly known as the Sagrada FamÍlia (1882-2026/2028(estimate)), Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
  • Apollodorus of Damascus - Syrian-Greek engineer, architect, designer and sculptor from Damascus, Roman Syria, who flourished during the 2nd century AD. A favourite of Trajan, for whom he constructed Trajan's Bridge over the Danube, for the 105-106 campaign in Dacia. He also designed the Forum Trajanum and Trajan's Column within the city of Rome, beside several smaller projects. Apollodorus also designed the triumphal arches of Trajan at Beneventum and Ancona. He is widely credited as the architect of the third iteration of the Pantheon.
  • ARNE JACOBSEN - (1902-1971). Danish architect and designer. He is remembered for his contribution to architectural Functionalism as well as for the worldwide success he enjoyed with simple but effective chair designs.
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  • Ca' Rezzonico, Dorsoduro 3136, 30123 Venice, Italy designed by Baldassare Longhena. Photo by By Didier Descouens.
  • Baldassare Longhena - (1598-1682). Italian architect, who worked mainly in Venice, where he was one of the greatest exponents of Baroque architecture of the period.
  • Baldassare Peruzzi - (1481-1536).
  • The altar depicts the Fourteen Holy Helpers.
  • Balthasar Neumann - (1687-1753). German military artillery engineer and architect who developed a refined brand of Baroque architecture, fusing Austrian, Bohemian, Italian, and French elements to design some of the most impressive buildings of the period, including the Würzburg Residence and the Basilica of the Fourteen Holy Helpers, called Vierzehnheiligen in German.
  • BARON HAUSSMAN - (1809-1891). Georges-Eugène Haussmann was a French civic planner whose name is associated with the rebuilding of Paris.
  • Bertram Goodhue - (1869-1924).
  • BRUNO PAUL - (1874-1968). Was a German architect, illustrator, interior designer, and furniture designer.
  • BRUNO TAUT - (1880-1938).
  • BUCKMINSTER FULLER - (1895-1983).
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  • Parthenon (Athens, Greece) by Callicrates (447 BC - 432 BC).
  • CALLICRATES - (5th century BC). Architect with Ikitinos of the Parthenon.
  • Carlo Scarpa - (1906-1978). Was an Italian architect, influenced by the materials, landscape, and the history of Venetian culture, and Japan.
  • CASS GILBERT - (1859-1934). Was a prominent American architect. An early proponent of skyscrapers, his works include the Woolworth Building, the United States Supreme Court building, the state capitols of Minnesota, Arkansas and West Virginia; and the Saint Louis Art Museum and Public Library. His public buildings in the Beaux Arts style reflect the optimistic American sense that the nation was heir to Greek democracy, Roman law and Renaissance humanism.
  • Petronas Towers (1999) by César Pelli (1926-2019).
  • CÉsar Pelli - (1926-2019). Was an Argentine-American architect who designed some of the world's tallest buildings and other major urban landmarks. Some of his most notable contributions included the Petronas Towers in Kuala Lumpur and the World Financial Center in New York City.
  • Palace of Westminster (London) by Charles Barry (1840-1870).
  • CHARLES BARRY - (1795-1860). Best known for his role in the rebuilding of the Palace of Westminster (also known as the Houses of Parliament) in London during the mid-19th century.
  • Paris Opera (France) by Charles Garnier (1875).
  • CHARLES GARNIER - (1825-1898). Designer of the OpÉra de Paris and the OpÉra de Monte-Carlo.
  • Charles Girault - (1851-1932). In 1905 he was chosen by Leopold II of Belgium to design the Arcades du Cinquantenaire in Brussels; also for Brussels, he designed the Royal Museum for Central Africa, begun in 1904 and finished in 1910.
  • CHARLES MEWÈS - (1858-1914). Designed Hôtel Ritz Paris, London & Madrid, as well as Carlton Hotel, London.
  • Charlotte Perriand - (1903-1999). Was a French architect and designer. Her work aimed to create functional living spaces in the belief that better design helps in creating a better society. In her article "L'Art de Vivre" from 1981 she states "The extension of the art of dwelling is the art of living - living in harmony with man's deepest drives and with his adopted or fabricated environment."
  • St. Paul's Cathedral (London, England) by Christopher Wren (1708).
  • CHRISTOPHER WREN - (1632-1723). Responsible for rebuilding 51 churches in the City of London after the Great Fire in 1666, including his masterpiece, St. Paul's Cathedral, completed in 1710.
  • Claude Nicolas Ledoux - (1736-1806). One of the earliest exponents of French Neoclassical architecture. He used his knowledge of architectural theory to design not only domestic architecture but also town planning; as a consequence of his visionary plan for the Ideal City of Chaux, he became known as a utopian.
  • Louvre Palace (Paris, France) by Claude Perrault.
  • CLAUDE PERRAULT - (1613-1688). Architect of the eastern range of the Louvre Palace.
  • C. P. H. Gilbert - (1861-1952). Was an American architect of the late-19th and early-20th centuries best known for designing townhouses and mansions.
  • Cross and Cross - (1907-1942). Known as Old New York City Society's architectural firm of choice.
  • One Times Square, 1 Times Square, New York City, NY 10036, U.S.A.
  • Cyrus L. W. Eidlitz - (1853-1921). New York architect best known for designing One Times Square, the former New York Times Building on Times Square.
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  • DANIEL HUDSON BURNHAM - (1846-1912).
  • DAVID HAID - (1928-1993).
  • Decimus Burton - (1800-1881). English architect and garden designer. A protegé of John Nash.
  • Detlef Lienau - (1818-1887). Credited with having introduced the French style to American building construction, notably the mansard roof and all its decorative flourishes, aka known as German Renaissance.
  • St. Peter's Basilica (Rome, Vatican City, Italy) by Donato Bramante (among others) (1626).
  • DONATO BRAMANTE - (1444–1514). Architect of St. Peter's Basilica.
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  • Negresco, 37 Promenade des Anglais, Nice, France.
  • Édouard-Jean Niermans - (1859-1928). Famous French architect of Dutch origins during the Belle Époque. Hôtel Negresco founded by Henri Négresco was designed by Édouard Niermans in 1912 on the promenade des Anglais in Nice.
  • Edward Durell Stone - (1902-1978).
  • EDWIN LUTYENS - (1869-1944). Known for imaginatively adapting traditional architectural styles to the requirements of his era. He designed many English country houses. He has been referred to as "the greatest British architect" and is known best for having an instrumental role in designing and building a section of the metropolis of Delhi, known as New Delhi, India.
  • EERO SAARINEN - (1910-1961). Finnish American architect and industrial designer of the 20th century famous for varying his style according to the demands of the project: simple, sweeping, arching structural curves or machine-like rationalism.
  • Erich Mendelsohn - (1887-1953).
  • Ernst Friedrich Zwirner - (1802-1861). Jewish German architect, known for his expressionist architecture in the 1920s, as well as for developing a dynamic functionalism in his projects for department stores and cinemas.
  • EugÈne Viollet-le-Duc - (1814-1879). French architect and author who restored many prominent medieval landmarks in France, including those which had been damaged or abandoned during the French Revolution. His major restoration projects included Notre-Dame de Paris, the Basilica of Saint Denis, Mont Saint-Michel, Sainte-Chapelle, and the medieval walls of the city of Carcassonne.
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  • Florence Cathedral, completed 1436.
  • Filippo Brunelleschi - (1377-1446). One of the foremost architects and engineers of the Italian Renaissance. He is perhaps most famous for his discovery of perspective and for engineering the dome of the Florence Cathedral.
  • Francesco Borromini - (1599-1667).
  • Francis Fleetwood - (1947-2015). Architect Who Transformed the Hamptons.
  • FRANÇOIS MANSART - (1598-1666). Mansart, as he is generally known, made extensive use of a four-sided, double slope gambrel roof punctuated with windows on the steeper lower slope, creating additional habitable space in the garrets that ultimately became named after him - the mansard roof.
  • Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum (New York City, NY, U.S.A.) by Frank Lloyd Wright (1959).
  • FRANK LLOYD WRIGHT - (1867-1959). American architect, designer, writer, and educator. He designed more than 1,000 structures over a creative period of 70 years. Wright believed in designing in harmony with humanity and the environment, a philosophy he called organic architecture. Architect of the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum and the Fallingwater / Kaufmann Residence.
  • Frederick John Kiesler - (1890-1965). Austrian-American architect, theoretician, theater designer, artist & sculptor.
  • FREDERICK LAW OLMSTED - (1822-1903). Father of American landscape architecture.
  • Frederick Sterner - (1862-1931).
  • FRIEDENSREICH HUNDERTWASSER - (1928-2000).
  • A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

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  • Foreign and Commonwealth Office (London, England) by George Gilbert Scott (1861-1868).
  • GEORGE EDMUND STREET - (1824-1881). Leading practitioner of the Victorian Gothic revival and is perhaps best known as the architect of the Royal Courts of Justice, on the Strand, London.
  • GEORGE GILBERT SCOTT - (1811-1878). Designer of the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, Whitehall, London, U.K. (1861-1868).
  • Cologne Cathedral (Germany) by Gerhard von Rile (1248).
  • GERHARD VON RILE - (c. 1210/1215-1271). Cologne Cathedral’s first master builder.
  • Giacomo della Porta - (c. 1533-1602). Architect and sculptor, who worked on many important buildings in Rome, including St. Peter's Basilica.
  • St. Peter's Baldachin over the high altar of St. Peter's Basilica in the Vatican City by Gian Lorenzo Bernini (1623-34).
  • Gian Lorenzo Bernini - (1598-1680). Italian artist and a prominent architect who worked principally in Rome. He was the leading sculptor of his age, credited with creating the Baroque style of sculpture.
  • GiÒ Ponti - (1891-1979). One of the most important Italian architects, industrial designers, furniture designers, artists, and publishers of the twentieth century.
  • Giulio Romano - (c. 1499-1546).
  • Casa del Fascio, Como, Italy (1936) by Giuseppe Terragni.
  • Giuseppe Terragni - (1904-1943). Was an Italian architect who worked primarily under the fascist regime of Benito Mussolini and pioneered the Italian modern movement under the rubric of Rationalism. His most famous work is the Casa del Fascio built in Como, northern Italy.
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  • Musée Masséna (65 Rue de France, 06000 Nice, France) by Hans-Georg Tersling (1857-1920).
  • HANS-GEORG TERSLING - (1857-1920). Danish architect who lived and worked for most of his life on the French Riviera where he became one of the most significant and productive architects of the Belle Époque. His work mainly consisted of designing mondain hotels, villas and mansions for members of the French and European aristocracy and other elite who resided in the area.
  • Hector Guimard: Metro station entrance (édicule Guimard) Porte Dauphine, Paris 16th arrondissement, France.
  • Hector Guimard - (1867-1942). Best-known representative of the French Art Nouveau style of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
  • Hector Lefuel - (1810-1880). French architect, best known for his work on the Palais du Louvre, including Napoleon III's Louvre expansion and the reconstruction of the Pavillon de Flore.
  • HENRY HOLLAND - (1745-1806).
  • Plaza Hotel (New York City, NY, U.S.A.) by Henry Hardenbergh (1905-1907).
  • HENRY JANEWAY HARDENBERGH - (1847-1918). Best known for his hotels and apartment buildings: e.g. Plaza Hotel, Waldorf-Astoria Hotel, Dakota apartment building, New York City, NY, U.S.A.
  • HonorÉ Daumet - (1826-1911). French architect. Reconstruction of the ChÂteau de Chantilly, 1875–1882.
  • The Elms, 367 Bellevue Avenue, Newport, Rhode Island, U.S.A.
  • HORACE TRUMBAUER - (1868-1938). Prominent American architect of the Gilded Age, known for designing residential manors for the wealthy. Trumbauer's massive palaces flattered the egos of his "robber baron" clients, but were dismissed by his professional peers. Today, however, he is hailed as one of America's premier architects, with his buildings drawing critical acclaim even to this day.
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  • Pantheon (Athens, Greece) by Callicrates (447 BC - 432 BC).
  • IKTINOS - (5th century BC). Architect with Callicrates of the Parthenon.
  • IMHOTEP - (2655-2600 BC). Considered to be the first architect known by name.
  • Banqueting House (Whitehall, London, England) by Inigo Jones (1622).
  • INIGO JONES - (1573-1652). Designed the Banqueting House, Whitehall, London, U.K. (1619-1622).
  • ISAMU NOGUCHI - (1904-1988).
  • Ivar Tengbom - (1878-1968).
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  • JAMES RUPERT MILLER - (1869-1946).
  • JAMES STIRLING - (1926-1992).
  • JEAN PROVÉ - (1901-1984).
  • Schönbrunn Palace, Hietzing, Vienna, Austria. Photo: LMih.
  • Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach - (1656-1723). Was an Austrian architect, sculptor, and architectural historian whose Baroque architecture profoundly influenced and shaped the tastes of the Habsburg Empire. His major works include Schönbrunn Palace, Karlskirche, and the Austrian National Library in Vienna, and Schloss Klessheim, Holy Trinity Church, and the Kollegienkirche in Salzburg.
  • Grande Arche designed by Danish architect Johann Otto von Spreckelsen and Danish engineer Erik Reitzel (1985-1989).
  • JOHAN OTTO VON SPRECKELSEN - (1929-1987).
  • John Carl Warnecke and First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy discuss plans for Lafayette Square and the New Executive Office Building in September 1962.
  • John Carl Warnecke - (1919-2010). Was an architect based in San Francisco, California, who designed numerous notable monuments and structures in the Modernist, Bauhaus, and other similar styles. He was an early proponent of contextual architecture. Among his more notable buildings and projects are the Hawaii State Capitol building, the John F. Kennedy Eternal Flame memorial gravesite at Arlington National Cemetery, and the master plan for Lafayette Square.
  • The Chemosphere, designed by American architect John Lautner in 1960. 7776 Torreyson Drive, Los Angeles, CA, U.S.A.
  • JOHN LAUTNER - (1911-1994). Influential American architect whose work in Southern California combined progressive engineering with humane design and dramatic space-age flair.
  • JOHN NASH - (1752-1835). British architect responsible for much of the layout of Regency London.
  • John Russell Pope - (1874-1937). American architect whose firm is widely known for designing major public buildings, including the National Archives and Records Administration building (completed in 1935), the Jefferson Memorial (completed in 1943) and the West Building of the National Gallery of Art (completed in 1941), all in Washington, DC.
  • JOHN VANBRUGH - (1664-1726). Best known as the designer of Blenheim Palace and Castle Howard.
  • JOHN WOOD, THE ELDER - (1704-1754).
  • JOHN WOOD, THE YOUNGER - (1728-1782).
  • Josef Hoffmann - (1870-1956).
  • JOSEPH PAXTON - (1803-1865).
  • Juan Bautista Villalpando - (1552-1608).
  • Place Vendôme in Paris by Hardouin-Mansart completed on April 7, 1699.
  • JULES HARDOUIN-MANSART - (1646-1708). French architect whose work is generally considered to be the apex of French Baroque architecture, representing the power and grandeur of Louis XIV. Hardouin-Mansart was one of the most important European architects of the seventeenth century.
  • Hearst Castle, 750 Hearst Castle Road, San Simeon, CA 93452-9741, U.S.A.
  • Julia Morgan - (1872-1957). American architect in California. She designed more than 700 buildings in California during a long and prolific career. She is best known for her work on Hearst Castle in San Simeon, California, U.S.A.
  • Sydney Opera House (Australia) by Danish architect Jørn Utzon (1973).
  • JØRN UTZON - (1918-2008). Designer of the SYDNEY OPERA HOUSE, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Completed 1973.
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  • Karl Friedrich Schinkel - (1781-1841). Prussian architect, city planner, and painter who also designed furniture and stage sets. Schinkel was one of the most prominent architects of Germany and designed both neoclassical and neogothic buildings.
  • KenzŌ Tange - (1913-2005). Japanese architect, and winner of the 1987 Pritzker Prize for architecture. He was one of the most significant architects of the 20th century, combining traditional Japanese styles with modernism, and designed major buildings on five continents.
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  • Villa Savoye (Poissy, Paris, France) by Le Corbusier (1931).
  • LE CORBUSIER - (1887-1965). Architect, designer, painter, urban planner, writer, and one of the pioneers of what is now called modern architecture.
  • The polychrome facade of Santa Maria Novella completed by Leon Battista Alberti in 1470.
  • Leon Battista Alberti - (1404-1472). Italian humanist author, artist, architect, poet, priest, linguist, philosopher and cryptographer; he epitomised the Renaissance Man.
  • Palace of Versailles (France) by Louis le Vau.
  • LOUIS LE VAU - (1612-1670). Architect of the Palace of Versailles.
  • Louis Sullivan - (1856-1924). American architect, and has been called a "father of skyscrapers" and "father of modernism". He was an influential architect of the Chicago School, a mentor to Frank Lloyd Wright, and an inspiration to the Chicago group of architects who have come to be known as the Prairie School.
  • Seagram Building (New York City, NY, U.S.A.) by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (1957).
  • LUDWIG MIES VAN DER ROHE - (1886-1969). Designed in 1958 what is often regarded as the pinnacle of the modernist high-rise architecture, the Seagram Building in New York City.
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  • MARCEL BREUER - (1902-1981).
  • Marion Sims Wyeth - (1889–1982) was an American architect. He designed mansions including Mar-a-Lago in Palm Beach, Florida, and Shangri La in Honolulu, Hawaii.
  • Mart Stam - (1899-1986). Dutch architect, urban planner, and furniture designer.
  • Martin Wagner - (1885-1957).
  • Maurice Fatio - (1897–1943). Swiss-born American architect who between 1925-1943 designed 137 homes in Palm Beach, Florida, U.S.A.
  • McKim, Mead & White - was an American architectural firm that thrived at the turn of the twentieth century. The firm's founding partners were Charles Follen McKim (1847–1909), William Rutherford Mead (1846–1928) and Stanford White (1853–1906). They hired many other architects, partners, associates, designers and draftsmen, who came to prominence during or after their time at the firm.
  • MEYER & HOLLER - (1905-1932).
  • St. Peter's Basilica (Rome, Vatican City, Italy) by Michelangelo (among others) (1626).
  • MICHELANGELO - (1475-1564). Architect of St. Peter's Basilica.
  • Selimiye Mosque, Edirne, Turkey commissioned by Sultan Selim II, and was built by architect Mimar Sinan between 1569 and 1575. It was considered by Sinan to be his masterpiece and is one of the highest achievements of Islamic architecture.
  • Mimar Sinan - (c. 1489/1490-1588). The chief Ottoman architect (Turkish: mimar) and civil engineer for sultans Suleiman the Magnificent, Selim II, and Murad III. He was responsible for the construction of more than 300 major structures.
  • Eden Roc Miami Beach Hotel, 4525 Collins Avenue, Miami Beach, FL 33140, U.S.A.
  • Morris Lapidus - (1902-2001). The architect of Neo-baroque Miami Modern hotels that have since come to define the 1950s resort-hotel style synonymous with Miami and Miami Beach.
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  • The Forbidden City (Beijing, China), chief designer & builder: Nguyen An.
  • NGUYEN AN - (died 1453). Principal designer and a chief builder of The Forbidden City, Beijing, China.
  • Easton Neston, Towcester, Northamptonshire, England, U.K. designed by Nicholas Hawksmoor.
  • NICHOLAS HAWKSMOOR - (1661-1736). One of the great masters of the English Baroque. Hawksmoor worked alongside the principal architects of the time, Christopher Wren and John Vanbrugh, and contributed to the design of some of the most notable buildings of the period, including St Paul's Cathedral, Wren's City of London churches, Blenheim Palace and Castle Howard. Easton Neston is thought to be the only mansion which was solely the work of Hawksmoor.
  • Nicolai Eigtved - (1701-1754). Leading proponent of the French rococo style in Danish architecture during the 1730s-1740s.
  • NICOLAS-HENRI JARDIN - (1720-1799). Neoclassical architect.
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  • OSCAR NIEMEYER - (1907-2012). Pioneer in exploring the formal possibilities of reinforced concrete solely for their aesthetic impact.
  • Otto Wagner - (1841-1918). Austrian architect and urban planner, known for his lasting impact on the appearance of his home town Vienna, to which he contributed many landmarks.
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  • 23 Beekman Place, New York City, NY 10022, U.S.A.
  • Paul Rudolph - (1918-1997). American architect and the chair of Yale University's Department of Architecture for six years, known for his use of concrete and highly complex floor plans. His most famous work is the Yale Art and Architecture Building (A&A Building also known as Rudolph Hall), a spatially complex brutalist concrete structure.
  • PAUL TROOST - (1878-1934).
  • PETER BEHRENS - (1868-1940).
  • Philibert de l'Orme - (1514-1570). One of the great masters of the French Renaissance.
  • PHILIP JOHNSON - (1906-2005).
  • Pierre Chareau - (1883-1950).
  • Pierre Koenig - (1925-2004).
  • PIET BLOM - (1934-1999).
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  • Raymond Hood - (1881-1934). American architect who worked in the Art Deco style. Principal architect was Raymond Hood for Rockefeller Center.
  • Richard Boyle, 3rd Earl of Burlington - (1694-1753). He is remembered for bringing Palladian architecture to Britain and Ireland. His major projects include Burlington House, Westminster School, Chiswick House and Northwick Park.
  • Centre Pompidou, Place Georges-Pompidou, 75004 Paris, France.  Photo: Leland.
  • Richard George Rogers, Baron Rogers of Riverside - (1933-2021). Was an Italian-born British architect noted for his modernist and functionalist designs in high-tech architecture. Rogers was perhaps best known for his work on the Pompidou Centre in Paris, the Lloyd's building and Millennium Dome both in London, the Senedd building in Cardiff, and the European Court of Human Rights building in Strasbourg. He was a winner of the RIBA Gold Medal, the Thomas Jefferson Medal, the RIBA Stirling Prize, the Minerva Medal, and Pritzker Prize. He was a Senior Partner at Rogers Stirk Harbour + Partners, previously known as the Richard Rogers Partnership, until 30 June 2020.
  • Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1000 5th Avenue, New York City, NY 10028, U.S.A.
  • RICHARD MORRIS HUNT - (1827-1895). American architect of the nineteenth century and a preeminent figure in the history of American architecture. Hunt was, according to design critic Paul Goldberger writing in The New York Times, "American architecture's first, and in many ways its greatest, statesman." Aside from Hunt's sculpting of the face of New York City, including designs for the facade and Great Hall of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the pedestal of the Statue of Liberty and many Fifth Avenue mansions lost to the wrecking ball, Hunt founded both the American Institute of Architects and the Municipal Art Society.
  • Richard Neutra - (1892-1970).
  • Robert Adam - (1728-1792). Was a Scottish neoclassical architect, interior designer and furniture designer. He developed the "Adam Style", and his theory of "movement" in architecture, based on his studies of antiquity and became one of the most successful and fashionable architects in the country.
  • Villa Paul Poiret in Mézy-sur-Seine, Yvelines, France, is an early 1920s Cubism-inspired, and later Art Deco, private house originally designed by architect Robert Mallet-Stevens.
  • Robert Mallet-Stevens - (1886-1945). Along with Le Corbusier he is widely regarded as the most influential figure in French architecture in the period between the two World Wars.
  • Robert Smythson - (1535-1614).
  • One Sutton Place South, New York City, NY 10022, U.S.A.
  • Rosario Candela - (1890-1953). Italian American architect who achieved renown through his apartment building designs in New York City, primarily during the boom years of the 1920s. He is credited with defining the city's characteristic terraced setbacks and signature penthouses. Over time, Candela's buildings have become some of New York's most coveted addresses, most of which were erected on Fifth & Park avenues before World War II, among others 740 Park Avenue - "at one time considered (and still thought to be by some) the most luxurious and powerful residential building in New York City."
  • Rudolph Schindler - (1887-1953).
  • A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

    - S -
  • Wimpole's Folly: mock semi-ruined castle designed by Sanderson Miller, in the grounds of Wimpole Hall.
  • Sanderson Miller - (1716-1780). English pioneer of Gothic revival architecture and landscape designer. He is noted for adding follies or other Picturesque garden buildings and features to the grounds of an estate.
  • Severin Jensen - (1723-1809). Danish architect who worked mainly in the Duchy of Courland and Semigallia. In 1772 he became a chief architect of Duke Peter von Biron, and in 1795 the chief architect of the Courland Governorate. In 1803 Jensen left Courland and traveled to Italy where he participated in the building of Royal Palace of Caserta. He worked in the style of Classicism which was very popular in Peter von Biron's court.
  • Stanford White - (1853-1906). American architect and partner in the architectural firm of McKim, Mead & White, the frontrunner among Beaux-Arts firms. He designed a long series of houses for the rich, and numerous public, institutional, and religious buildings. His design principles embodied the "American Renaissance".
  • SVERRE FEHN - (1924-2009).
  • A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

    - T -
  • Goldener Saal in the Wiener Musikverein designed by Danish architect Theophil Hansen in the Neoclassical style of an ancient Greek temple inaugurated on January 6, 1870.
  • Theophil Hansen - (1813-1891). Danish architect who later became an Austrian citizen. He became particularly well known for his buildings and structures in Athens and Vienna, and is considered an outstanding representative of neoclassicism.
  • Thomas Cubitt - (1788-1855). English master builder, notable for developing many of the historic streets and squares of London, especially in Belgravia, Pimlico and Bloomsbury.
  • TIMOTHY L. PFLUEGER - (1892-1946).
  • A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

    - V -
  • Victor Horta - (1861-1947). Described him as "undoubtedly the key European Art Nouveau architect."
  • Villa Molin, Mandria, Padua, Italy designed by Vincenzo Scamozzi. Photo by Milazzi.
  • Vincenzo Scamozzi - (1548-1616). Italian architect and a writer on architecture, active mainly in Vicenza and Republic of Venice area in the second half of the 16th century. He was perhaps the most important figure there between Andrea Palladio, whose unfinished projects he inherited at Palladio's death in 1580, and Baldassarre Longhena, Scamozzi's only pupil.
  • VITRUVIUS - (c. 80–70 BC - c. 15 BC).
  • A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

    - W -
  • The Bauhaus Dessau (Germany).
  • WALTER GROPIUS - (1883-1969). Founder of the Bauhaus School.
  • Grand Central Terminal (1913).
  • Warren and Wetmore - partnership between Whitney Warren (1864–1943) and Charles Wetmore (1866–1941), that had one of the most extensive practices of its time and was known for the designing of large hotels.
  • WELLS COATES - (1895-1958).
  • Berlin's Olympic Stadium (1936).
  • Werner March - (1894-1976). His most famous work, Berlin's Olympic Stadium.
  • Oheka Castle, 135 W. Gate Drive, Huntington, New York, U.S.A.
  • William Adams Delano - (1874-1960). American architect, was a partner with Chester Holmes Aldrich in the firm of Delano & Aldrich. The firm worked in the Beaux-Arts tradition for elite clients in New York City, Long Island and elsewhere, building townhouses, country houses, clubs, banks and buildings for colleges and private schools. Moving on from the classical and baroque Beaux-Arts repertory, they often designed in the neo-Georgian and neo-Federal styles, and many of their buildings were clad in brick with limestone or white marble trim, a combination which came to be their trademark.
  • WILLIAM KENT - (c. 1685-1748).
  • WILLIAM OF SENS - (12th century).
  • WILLIAM WURSTER - (1895-1973).
  • Ann & Gordon Getty's Mansion, 2870-2880 Broadway, Pacific Heights, San Francisco, CA 94115, U.S.A. designed by Willis Polk.
  • WILLIS POLK - (1867-1924). American architect best known for his work in San Francisco, California.
    Living Architects: A-Z
  • Norman Foster, Baron Foster of Thames Bank.
  • A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

    - A -
  • 3XN - founded 1986.
  • AEDAS - provides consultancy services in architecture, interior design, masterplanning, landscape, urban design and building consultancy in Asia, the Middle East, Europe and the Americas.
  • Amanda Levete - Stirling Prize-winning British architect.
  • ARUP - providing engineering, design, planning, project management and consulting services for all aspects of the built environment.
  • ATKINS ARCHITECTURE - "We are a multinational community of 650 architects sharing a passion for excellence."
  • A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

    - B -
  • BDP - "Creating Places for People." The largest interdisciplinary practice of architects, designers, engineers and urbanists in Europe.
  • Bjarke Ingels - Danish architect, founder and creative partner of Bjarke Ingels Group (BIG). Since 2009, Ingels has won numerous architectural competitions. He moved to New York City in 2012, where in addition to the VIA 57 West, BIG won a design contest after Hurricane Sandy for improving Manhattan's flood resistance, and are now designing the new Two World Trade Center building. In 2011, The Wall Street Journal named Ingels Innovator of the Year for architecture, and in 2016 TIME Magazine named him one of the 100 Most Influential People.
  • BIG | BJARKE INGELS GROUP - founded 2005. A Copenhagen and New York based group of architects, designers, and builders operating within the fields of architecture, urbanism, research and development. The office is currently involved in a large number of projects throughout Europe, North America, Asia and the Middle East. As of 2016, the office has over 400 employees from 25 countries.
  • A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

    - C -
  • C.F. MØLLER ARCHITECTS - one of Scandinavia's oldest and largest architectual pratices.
  • World's tallest pair of towers slated for Wuhan, China.
  • Chetwoods - "Explore | Create | Make."
  • CHRISTIAN DE PORTZAMPARC
  • COSTAS KONDYLIS DESIGN - New York architectural firm specializing in modern hi-rise residential style architecture and custom interior design.
  • C. Y. Lee - Chinese architect based in Taiwan. He directed the design of Taipei 101, the world's tallest skyscraper at the time of completion, in 2004.
  • A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

    - D -
  • DANIEL LIBESKIND - Polish-American architect, artist, professor and set designer. On February 27, 2003, Libeskind won the competition to be the master plan architect for the reconstruction of the World Trade Center site in Lower Manhattan, New York City, U.S.A.
  • Abraj Kudai hotel.
  • Dar Al-Handasah - since 1956. Multi-disciplinary architecture and engineering consultancy. Has served over 950 different clients in 63 countries with a staff of 6900 operating from 45 offices in the Middle East, Africa, Asia and Europe with five design centres in Beirut, Cairo, London, Pune and Amman.
  • David Chipperfield
  • DILLER SCOFIDIO + RENFRO
  • Dymitr Malcew
  • A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

    - F -
  • fernando romero architects - currently the most exposed and successful young Latin American architect.
  • FOSTER + PARTNERS
  • FRANCIS DESIGN
  • FRANK GEHRY - Canadian-American Pritzker Prize-winning architect based in Los Angeles.
  • Frei Otto: tensed structures for the Munich 1972 Olympic Games. Olympic Stadium and Park. Munich, Germany.
  • Frei Otto - the world's leading authority on lightweight tensile and membrane structures, and has pioneered advances in structural mathematics and civil engineering.
  • FRITS VAN DONGEN
  • A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

    - G -
  • GDS ARCHITECTS - an international practice with offices in Pasadena, Seoul and Taipei. The practice provides full architecture, master planning and interiors for clients in both the public and private sectors.
  • Gehl Architects - urban research and design consulting firm based in Copenhagen, Denmark. It was founded in 2000 by Professor Jan Gehl and urban designer Helle Søholt as a continuation of Gehl's research within the area over the past four decades. The firm specialises in improving the quality of urban life by re-orienting city design towards the pedestrian and cyclist.
  • GEHRY PARTNERS - founded 1962. "Gehry Partners, LLP is a full service firm with broad international experience in academic, commercial, museum, performance, and residential projects."
  • GENSLER - global architecture, design, planning and consulting firm - 3,500+ professionals in more than 42 locations.
  • GRAFTON ARCHITECTS
  • GWATHMEY SIEGEL & ASSOCIATES ARCHITECTS
  • A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

    - H -
  • HEERIM - architects & planners.
  • HERREROS ARQUITECTOS
  • Beijing National Stadium (colloquially known as the Bird's Nest) by Herzog & De Meuron (2008).
  • HERZOG & DE MEURON - since 1978. Architects of the Beijing National Stadium - aka the 'Bird's Nest'.
  • A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

    - I -
  • The Louvre Pyramid (Paris, France) has become Pei's most famous structure (1988).
  • I. M. PEI - known as the last master of high modernist architecture.
  • A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

    - J -
  • Jan Gehl - Danish architect and urban design consultant based in Copenhagen whose career has focused on improving the quality of urban life by re-orienting city design towards the pedestrian and cyclist. He is a founding partner of Gehl Architects.
  • JEAN DELOGNE - landscape designer.
  • JEAN NOUVEL - the Wolf Prize in Arts in 2005 and the Pritzker Prize in 2008.
  • JEAN-PHILIPPE NUEL - architecture and interior design.
  • JÜRGEN MAYER-HERMANN - J. Mayer H.
  • A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

    - K -
  • Kengo Kuma - frequently compared to contemporaries Shigeru Ban & Kazuyo Sejima, Kuma is also noted for his prolific writings.
  • KIM HERFORTH NIELSEN
  • KPF | KOHN PEDERSEN FOX
  • A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

    - M -
  • MAD STUDIO - based in Beijing, China. It is headed by is Yansong Ma.
  • MAJORELLE
  • MORRIS ARCHITECTS - Architecture, landscape architecture, planning and interior design are the core disciplines practiced by seven Morris Architects studios.
  • MVRDV
  • A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

    - N -
  • 30 St Mary Axe (colloquially referred to as the Gherkin) by Norman Foster (2003).
  • NORMAN FOSTER - "Foster + Partners is a global studio for sustainable architecture, engineering, urbanism and industrial design, founded by Norman Foster in 1967. Since then, he, and the team around him, have established an international practice with a worldwide reputation. With offices across the globe, we work as a single studio that is both ethnically and culturally diverse."
  • A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

    - O -
  • United Nations Headquarters by Oscar Niemeyer (1952).
  • OLE SCHEEREN
  • OMA | OFFICE FOR METROPOLITAN ARCHITECTURE - the office is led by six partners – Rem Koolhaas, Ole Scheeren, Ellen van Loon, Reinier de Graaf, Shohei Shigematsu and Managing Partner, Victor van der Chijs – and employs a staff of around 220 of 35 nationalities.
  • A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

    - P -
  • PASCAL + WATSON ARCHITECTS - leading transport architects.
  • PAUL ANDREU
  • PAUL DE RUITER
  • PEI COBB FREED & PARTNERS
  • PEI PARTNERSHIP ARCHITECTS
  • Perkins Eastman - international architecture, interior design, urban design, planning, landscape architecture, graphic design, and project management firm. Headquartered in New York City, U.S.A.
  • PETER COOK
  • PETER MARINO ARCHITECT - founded in 1978. Based in New York City.
  • PETER RICH ARCHITECTS
  • PETER VETSCH - known for building earth houses.
  • PLT Planning and Architecture
  • PTW
  • A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

    - R -
  • RAFAEL VINOLY ARCHITECTS
  • De Rotterdam is a building on the Wilhelminapier in Rotterdam, designed by Rem Koolhaas in 1998.
  • REM KOOLHAAS - in 2008 Time Magazine put him in their top 100 of The World's Most Influential People.
  • RENZO PIANO BUILDING WORKSHOP | RPBW - born 14 September 1937) is an Italian architect. His notable buildings include the Centre Georges Pompidou in Paris (with Richard Rogers, 1977), The Shard in London (2012), and the Whitney Museum of American Art in New York City (2015) and Stavros Niarchos Foundation Cultural Center in Athens (2016). He won the Pritzker Architecture Prize in 1998.
  • Richard Landry - Canadian-born American architect. Known as the "King of the Megamansion," he has designed many private residences for corporate moguls and celebrities in Los Angeles County, California.
  • RICHARD MEIER & PARTNERS ARCHITECTS
  • RMJM - "People Process Projects. Our work encompasses architecture, sustainable design,urbanism, masterplanning, interior design and research and development."
  • Robert A. M. Stern - erhaps best known for his residential projects in New York City, which include 15 Central Park West, 20 East End Avenue, The Chatham, and The Brompton. Recently, Stern designed three skyscrapers, 220 Central Park South, 520 Park Avenue, and 30 Park Place, all of which will be amongst the tallest buildings in New York City upon completion.
  • Robert Venturi - American architect, founding principal of the firm VSBA Architects, and one of the major architectural figures in the twentieth century.
  • ROGERS STIRK HARBOUR + PARTNERS (RSHP) - since 1977. British architectural firm, founded in 1977 and originally known as the Richard Rogers Partnership. Its main offices are located in the Leadenhall Building, London, U.K.
  • ROLAND CASTRO
  • RTKL - global design practice comprised of 800+ professionals, with offices worldwide.
  • A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

    - S -
  • Sambuichi Architects - established in 1997 by Hiroshi Sambuichi.
  • SANAA | Sejima and Nishizawa and Associates
  • SANTIAGO CALATRAVA
  • Saunders Architecture Villa Russo, Brussels, Belgium.
  • Saunders Architecture - founded by the Canadian architect Todd Saunders in 1998. Saunders has lived and worked in Bergen since 1996. Bringing together dynamic building and material experimentation with traditional methods of craft, Bergen-based Saunders Architecture has worked on cultural and residential projects right across Norway, as well as England, Denmark, Italy, Sweden and Canada.
  • SCHMIDT HAMMER LASSEN ARCHITECTS
  • SCHOPFER ASSOCIATES
  • SKIDMORE, OWINGS & MERRILL
  • SnØhetta - since 1987. "We are Snøhetta. We create architecture, landscapes, interiors, product design and graphic design." Snøhetta is a place nobody is from, but anyone can go to. Today, Snøhetta has grown to become an internationally renowned practice of architecture, landscape architecture, interior architecture, product, graphic, digital design and art, with 280 employees of more than thirty different nationalities, and an equal gender distribution. Our practice has a global presence, with offices spanning from Oslo, Paris, and Innsbruck, to New York, Hong Kong, Adelaide and San Francisco.
  • STEVEN HOLL ARCHITECTS
  • STUDIO DANIEL LIBESKIND
  • A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

    - T -
  • TADAO ANDO
  • Burj Al Arab (Dubai, U.A.E.) by Tom Wright (1999).
  • TOM WRIGHT - his most famous design is the Burj Al Arab hotel in Dubai.
  • Toyo Ito - awarded the Pritzker Prize in 2013.
  • A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

    - V -
  • VLA | VILHELM LAURITZEN ARCHITECTS
  • A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

    - W -
  • WALLACE E. CUNNINGHAM - innovative residential design.
  • WAM Architecten - Wilfried van Winden.
  • WATG - "Having worked in 160 countries and territories across six continents, WATG has designed more great hotels and resorts than any other firm on the planet."
  • A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

    - Z -
  • ZAHA HADID ARCHITECTS
  • ZEIDLER PARTNERSHIP ARCHITECTS
    Architecture Events
  • World Architecture Festival.
  • BIENNALE ARCHITETTURA 2021 | 17th INTERNATIONAL ARCHITURE EXHIBITION - "Open to the public from Saturday 22 May through Sunday 21 November 2021 at the Giardini, the Arsenale, and Forte Marghera, the 17th International Architecture Exhibition titled How will we live together? is curated by Hashim Sarkis and organized by La Biennale di Venezia. The International Exhibition includes 112 Participants from 46 countries, with a growing delegation from Africa, Latin America and Asia and with a wide female representation. The Exhibition is organized into five scales, three are exhibited in the Arsenale and two in the Central Pavilion: Among Diverse Beings, As New Households, As Emerging Communities, Across Borders, As One Planet."
  • WORLD ARCHITECTURE FESTIVAL 2022 - November 30 - December 2. "Together in Lisbon. Now in its 15th year, the annual World Architecture Festival (WAF) is the most prestigious architectural prize in the world and judged by the biggest names in architecture. It is the ONLY global architectural prize where shortlisted entrants present their projects live to the jury in front of an audience of peers. Winning a WAF award will elevate your practice and help build your global reputation as a leading architect. Plus, ALL entries will be featured on the World Buildings Directory. It's time to start your WAF journey."
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