Browse Categories:

This illustration, created at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), reveals ultrastructural morphology exhibited by coronaviruses. Photo credit: Alissa Eckert, MS, Dan Higgins, MAM.

Top 3000 Coronavirus Advice, News & Resources: A-Z

Coronavirus Wikipedia Resources (10+) Coronavirus Overview & Statistics (70)
COVID-19 Vaccine Passport News & Resources (26) (Designer) Face Masks Online & Resources (235)
Top 3000 Coronavirus Advice, News & Resources: A-Z

CORONAVIRUS disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS coronavirus 2, or SARS-CoV-2), a virus closely related to the SARS virus. The disease was discovered and named during the 2019–20 coronavirus outbreak. Those affected may develop a fever, dry cough, fatigue, and shortness of breath. A sore throat, runny nose or sneezing is less common. While the majority of cases result in mild symptoms, some can progress to pneumonia and multi-organ failure.

The infection is spread from one person to others via respiratory droplets produced from the airways, often during coughing or sneezing. Time from exposure to onset of symptoms is generally between 2 and 14 days, with an average of 5 days. The standard method of diagnosis is by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) from a nasopharyngeal swab or sputum sample, with results within a few hours to 2 days. Antibody assays can also be used, using a blood serum sample, with results within a few days. The infection can also be diagnosed from a combination of symptoms, risk factors and a chest CT scan showing features of pneumonia.

Correct handwashing technique, maintaining distance from people who are coughing and not touching one's face with unwashed hands are measures recommended to prevent the disease. It is also recommended to cover one's nose and mouth with a tissue or a bent elbow when coughing. Those who suspect they carry the virus are recommended to wear a surgical face mask and seek medical advice by calling a doctor rather than visiting a clinic in person. Masks are also recommended for those who are taking care of someone with a suspected infection but not for the general public. There is no vaccine or specific antiviral treatment, with management involving treatment of symptoms, supportive care and experimental measures. The case fatality rate is estimated at between 1% and 3%.

In epidemiology, the BASIC REPRODUCTION NUMBER (sometimes called basic reproductive ratio, or incorrectly basic reproductive rate, and denoted R0, pronounced R nought or R zero) of an infection can be thought of as the expected number of cases directly generated by one case in a population where all individuals are susceptible to infection. The definition describes the state where no other individuals are infected or immunized (naturally or through vaccination).

Beauty & Skincare (Top 225+) Beauty News & Resources (150+) Coronavirus (3000+ News & Resources)
Cosmetic Dermatology Dentists/Oral Hygiene Resources Energy Drinks (Top 10)
Fitness News & Resources (Top 125) Fragrances: A-Z (Top 425) Grooming (Top 35+)
Hair Care Products (Top 25) Hairdressers & Stylists (Top 50) Health Advice (300+)
Health Clubs (Top 50) Health Food & Diets: A-Z (Top 250) Health Food Bookstore (20+)
Plastic Surgery (Top 20 plastic surgeons) Rehabilitation Centers (Top 35) Shaving Gear (Top 20)
Spa Resorts (Top 45) Tanning Yoga (Top 75+)
  • 2 doses of Pfizer, AstraZeneca shots effective against Delta variant: study - "Two doses of Pfizer (PFE.N) or AstraZeneca's (AZN.L) COVID-19 vaccine are nearly as effective against the highly transmissible Delta coronavirus variant as they are against the previously dominant Alpha variant, a study published on Wednesday showed."
  • 9 places you’re most likely to catch the coronavirus - "Despite an encouraging drop-off in COVID infections, Dr. Fauci warns that adhering to coronavirus safety guidelines remains as important as ever. Fauci in recent weeks has been urging people to stay away from places like bars, restaurants, and gyms until the US reaches herd immunity."
  • 37% of people have symptoms six months after infection - "A large study reveals the scale of long Covid, with symptoms affected by sex, age and severity of infection."
  • 190 countries, 650,000 deaths: mapping the spread of COVID-19 across the world - "Mapping the Spread of the Coronavirus Outbreak Around the U.S. and the World. Since the first case of COVID-19 was identified in December 2019, the illness has become a pandemic, touching every corner of the planet."
  • 501.V2 variant - also known as 20H/501Y.V2 (formerly 20C/501Y.V2), B.1.351 lineage and South African COVID-19 variant, is a variant of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. The variant was first detected in the Nelson Mandela Bay metropolitan area of the Eastern Cape province of South Africa and reported by the country's health department on 18 December 2020.
  • A pandemic atlas: How covid-19 took over the world in 2020 - "Almost no place has been spared - and no one. The virus that first emerged a year ago in Wuhan, China, swept across the world in 2020, leaving havoc in its wake. More than any event in memory, the pandemic has been a global event. On every continent, households have felt its devastation - joblessness and lockdowns, infirmity and death. And an abiding, relentless fear."
  • B117 Variant - "What we know about the new Covid mutation."
  • B1351 ('SOUTH AFRICAN VARIANT') - is a variant of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. One of several SARS-CoV-2 variants believed to be of particular importance, it was first detected in the Nelson Mandela Bay metropolitan area of the Eastern Cape province of South Africa and reported by the country's health department on 18 December 2020.
  • B1525: new covid variant with potentially worrying mutations found in UK - "Researchers say 32 cases of B1525 in Britain, with other cases in countries including Denmark, US and Australia."
  • B1526 ('New York Variant') - "‘This is definitely one to watch’: New Covid variant spreading rapidly in NYC. Coronavirus variant carries mutation that may reduce vaccine effectiveness. Researchers found two similar versions of the variant: one with the E484K mutation previously seen in the South African variant that is thought to partially diminish the immune response, and another with a mutation called S477N which may affect how tightly the virus binds to human cells. Both are grouped together as B1526."
  • B.1.617 - also known as G/452.V3, is one of the known variants of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. It was first identified in Maharashtra, India on 5 October 2020. It has been referred to as a double mutation variant. "Double mutation" refers to B.1.617's mutations in the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein's coding sequence at E484Q and L452R. The use of the term "double mutant" has been criticised by infectious disease scientists due to SARS-CoV-2 being in a state of perpetual mutation with numerous mutations occurring around the world, so use of this misleading term is being discouraged.
  • Brazilian variant - Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has many variants; some are or have been believed to be of particular importance.
  • Breaking Down What COVID-19 Vaccine Effectiveness Means - "The U.S. now has three safe and effective COVID-19 vaccines being shipped around the country and making it into people’s arms. All meet the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s threshold for protecting people from COVID-19 disease. Yet two of them are about 95% efficacious, while another is 66% efficacious, which may make it tempting to rank them, and assume that people receiving the 66% efficacious shot are somehow less protected against COVID-19."
  • CDC chief warns of 'potential fourth surge' & urges US to keep Covid rules - "Rochelle Walensky, the director of the federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), warned on Monday that a recent increase in coronavirus cases indicated a 'fourth surge' could occur before a majority of the US is vaccinated."
  • Comparison of the characteristics, morbidity & mortality of COVID-19 & seasonal influenza - "A nationwide, population-based retrospective cohort study." The Lancet.
  • Coronavirus COVID-19 Global Cases - by the Center for Systems Science and Engineering (CSSE) at Johns Hopkins University (JHU).
  • Coronavirus (COVID-19) vaccinations - "Statistics and Research." Our data on COVID-19 vaccinations is updated each morning (London time), with the most recent official numbers up to the previous day. The Our World in Data COVID vaccination data. To bring this pandemic to an end, a large share of the world needs to be immune to the virus.
  • Coronavirus: From unknown virus to global crisis - timeline - "From December 2019, when an unknown virus was found in China, to the release of vaccines for Covid-19, it has been an extraordinary year. Here’s how the momentum shifted."
  • CORONAVIRUS GOVERNMENT RESPONSE TRACKER - "Governments are taking a wide range of measures in response to the COVID-19 outbreak. This tool aims to track and compare policy responses around the world, rigorously and consistently."
  • Covid antiviral pill halves hospitalisations & deaths, maker says - "If approved, Merck’s drug would be first simple oral medication shown to be effective against coronavirus."
  • Covid Performance Index - "Deconstructing Pandemic Responses. What impact have geography, political systems, population size, and economic development had on COVID-19 outcomes around the world?" Lowy Institute.
  • Covid vaccine map: how are countries around the world doing? - "More than 2bn Covid-19 vaccine doses have been administered worldwide. Find out which countries are vaccinating the most."
  • Covid world map: which countries have the most coronavirus vaccinations, cases & deaths? - "Covid-19 has spread around the planet, sending billions into lockdown. Find out where the virus has spread, and where it has been most deadly."
  • Covid’s Forgotten Hero: The Untold Story Of The Scientist Whose Breakthrough Made The Vaccines Possible - "Without Ian MacLachlan’s innovative delivery system, Moderna and Pfizer couldn’t safely get their mRNA vaccines into your cells. So why does hardly anyone acknowledge the Canadian biochemist’s seminal contributions - or pay a dime in royalties?"
  • COVID-19 lab leak theory a ‘probable hypothesis,’ WHO scientist says in stunning reversal - "The first person infected with COVID-19 could have caught the virus from a bat while working at the controversial Wuhan virology lab - but Chinese officials pressured the World Health Organization to drop the theory during a probe into the pandemic’s origins, according to an astonishing admission from a WHO scientist."
  • COVID-19 vaccinations to start across EU from December 27 - "All European Union member states plan to start vaccinations against COVID-19 from Dec. 27, German Health Minister Jens Spahn said on Thursday."
  • Covid-19's astounding death toll in the US - "One year ago, Americans could have hardly imagined a pandemic that would kill one person every 30 seconds." Interactive.
  • Delta Plus: Scientists say too early to tell risk of Covid-19 variant - "India has classified a new variant of the coronavirus first identified in Europe as a 'variant of concern', but it's too early to really tell."
  • Does Covid-19 follow a similar seasonal pattern to flu - "Anticipating the seasonality of coronavirus is a key factor in fighting its spread, say scientists."
  • Double masking can block 92% of infectious particles, CDC says - "Double masking can significantly improve protection, new data from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention shows. Researchers found that layering a cloth mask over a medical procedural mask, such as a disposable blue surgical mask, can block 92.5% of potentially infectious particles from escaping by creating a tighter fit and eliminating leakage."
  • Double masks: Should we use them? - "There’s a lot of choice about which type of face covering to wear – and in some countries the advice is changing as we learn more about how the virus spreads. In certain countries a specific type of mask is required in public areas. The BBC's Science Editor David Shukman explains the differences between cloth masks, surgical masks and N95 masks - and looks at whether we should double mask."
  • 'Double mutant': What are the risks of India's new Covid-19 variant - "A new 'double mutant' variant of the coronavirus has been detected from samples collected in India, which has been named B.1.617."
  • E484K mutation - "The E484K amino acid change, a receptor-binding-domain (RBD) mutation, was reported to be 'associated with escape from neutralising antibodies' which could adversely affect the efficacy of spike protein-dependent COVID vaccines. The E484K spike mutation was linked to a case of reinfection with the 501.V2 variant of SARS-CoV-2 in Brazil, believed by researchers to be the first such case of reinfection involving this mutation."
  • FFP standards - EN 149 is a European standard of testing and marking requirements for filtering half masks. Such masks cover the nose, mouth and chin and may have inhalation and/or exhalation valves. EN 149 defines three classes of such particle half masks, called FFP1, FFP2 and FFP3, (FFP = Filtering Face Piece) according to their filtering efficiency.
  • Flu & Covid jabs safe to be given at same time, study finds - "Clinical trial on joint flu, Pfizer and AstraZeneca vaccinations reported only mild to moderate side-effects."
  • Gangrene, Hearing Loss Show Delta Variant May Be More Severe - "The coronavirus variant driving India’s devastating Covid-19 second wave is the most infectious to emerge so far. Doctors now want to know if it’s also more severe."
  • Having Trouble Getting a COVID-19 Vaccine? This Standby Site Wants to Help - TIME Magazine.
  • Here's a look at how the different coronavirus vaccines work - "Here's a look at the technology behind some of the candidates that are the furthest along in development -- mostly in Phase 3 clinical trials, the last step before seeking the go-ahead from the US Food and Drug Administration and other regulators around the world."
  • Here's how some of the leading coronavirus vaccines work - CNN Health.
  • How coronavirus spreads through a population & how we can beat it - "As the global effort to limit the pandemic’s impact gathers pace watch how subtle changes in social behaviour or the level of contagiousness of the virus can affect the battle to stop its spread. This interactive feature was originally published in April 2020, it was updated on 27 August 2021 to compare the infectiousness of the Delta coronavirus variant."
  • How Europe lost control of Covid-19 - "COVID-19 Cases Are Rising in Europe, and the Vaccine Rollout Is Lagging. How Did It All Go So Badly Wrong?"
  • Lineage B.1.1.248 - colloquially known as the Brazil(ian) variant, is one of the variants of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. This variant of SARS-CoV-2 has been named P.1 lineage and has 17 unique amino acid changes, 10 of which in its spike protein, including N501Y and E484K.
  • Lockdowns compared: tracking governments’ coronavirus responses - "From business closures to movement restrictions, how countries’ policies around the world are changing."
  • MAP: Covid-19 vaccination tracker across the U.S. - "NBC News is tracking administered doses in each state by surveying health departments and examining daily reports."
  • MAPPING COVID-19 VACCINE PRE-PURCHASES ACROSS THE GLOBE - "A flurry of nearly 200 COVID-19 vaccine candidates are moving forward through the development and clinical trials processes at unprecedented speed; more than ten candidates are already in Phase 3 large-scale trials and several have received emergency or limited authorization. Also unprecedented is the number of advance market commitments (AMCs) made by countries and multilateral partnerships eager to reserve vaccine supply, even before any candidates are on the market."
  • Masks, hugs & hand washing: 18 new rules for protecting yourself and others - "When should you open the windows, wear a mask and take a lateral flow test? As we enter the ‘personal responsibility’ era, here’s an expert guide."
  • N439K mutation of SARS-CoV-2 may be more infectious & antibody resistant than Wuhan strain - "Researchers investigated the effect of different mutations of SARS-CoV-2 on its binding to the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 using molecular dynamics simulations. They found the N439K mutant binds more strongly than the original Wuhan strain, which may have implications for therapeutics like monoclonal antibodies."
  • New 'hybrid' variant detected in Vietnam - "Vietnam has detected a Covid variant that appears to be a combination of the Indian and UK variants and can spread quickly by air, officials say."
  • No major organized religion objects to Covid vaccines. Will religious exemptions hold? - "Religious exemptions to vaccine mandates could test 'sincerely held beliefs'."
  • Novavax Reports Its COVID-19 Vaccine is 96% Efficacious, Based on Phase 3 Trial Results - "Novavax reported on March 11 that its COVID-19 vaccine is 96% efficacious in reducing mild, moderate or severe disease. The Maryland-based company joins the handful of manufacturers that have reported encouraging data on a COVID-19 vaccine; three, Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna and Johnson & Johnson’s Janssen Pharmaceuticals, have already received emergency use authorization for their shots from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration."
  • Our world in data - "COVID-19 Data Explorer."
  • P.1 variant - also known as 20J/501Y.V3, Variant of Concern 202101/02 (VOC-202101/02) or colloquially known as the Brazil(ian) variant, is one of the variants of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. This variant of SARS-CoV-2 has been named lineage P.1 and has 17 unique amino acid changes, ten of which are in its spike protein, including these three designated to be of particular concern: N501Y, E484K and K417T.
  • Pfizer-BioNTech Announces They Will Test a Third Dose of Their COVID-19 Vaccine - "Pfizer-BioNTech has begun testing a third dose of its COVID-19 vaccine in a small group of people. The vaccine is currently authorized in several countries in a two-dose regimen, given 21 days apart, and has proven in studies to be about 95% effective in protecting against COVID-19 disease. But as new (and more infectious) genetic variants of the COVID-19 virus start circulating - so far, scientists have identified three major strains, first found in the U.K., South Africa, and Brazil, respectively - questions about how well authorized vaccines can still thwart the virus have become more urgent."
  • Pfizer's Covid-19 vaccine has waning immunity: studies - "Studies confirm waning immunity from Pfizer's Covid-19 vaccine. Two real-world studies published Wednesday confirm that the immune protection offered by two doses of Pfizer's Covid-19 vaccine drops off after two months or so, although protection against severe disease, hospitalization and death remains strong."
  • Researchers identify five new cases of ‘double mutant’ Covid variant in California - "It contains two key mutations, which scientists call E484Q and L452R, that have been found separately in other variants but not together in a single strain, according to Dr. Benjamin Pinsky, medical director of Stanford’s clinical virology laboratory, which discovered the new variant in the U.S."
  • Seriously, stop sharing your vaccine cards on social media - "It's not just your birthday that's listed. The card shows medically sensitive information, including vaccine lot number, clinic location and the brand of vaccination received. And for some people, the card contains even more."
  • The reality of fully vaccinated people dying from Covid-19 - "Why vaccinated people dying from Covid-19 doesn't mean the vaccines are ineffective."
  • TIME's COVID-19 US vaccine tracker - "A guide to the coronavirus vaccination rollout and what you need to know about the authorized vaccines."
  • Tracking Covid-19 cases in the US - "Since January, novel coronavirus has spread to nearly every state and territory."
  • Valneva Covid vaccine could be as effective as Oxford jab, study suggests - "Vaccine produced by French company uses inactivated Sars-CoV-2 virus and can be stored in fridge."
  • Variant of Concern 202012/01 - abbreviated VOC-202012/01 (also known as lineage B.1.1.7, 20I/501Y.V1 or commonly as the UK variant or British variant; see § Names), is a variant of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. One of several variants believed to be of particular importance, it is estimated to be 30%-80% more transmissible than wild-type SARS-CoV-2 and was detected in November 2020 from a sample taken in September, during the COVID-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom; it began to spread quickly by mid-December, and is correlated with a significant increase in SARS-CoV-2 infections in the country. This increase is thought to be at least partly because of one or more mutations in the virus's spike protein. The variant is also notable for having more mutations than normally seen. The variant is known by several names. In British government and media reports it may be referred to as UK COVID-19 variant, UK coronavirus variant or, particularly outside the UK, as the UK variant or British variant. It is sometimes called the Kent variant, with no further explanation.
  • VUI - 202012/01 - N501Y - "The first Variant Under Investigation in December 2020 (VUI - 202012/01), also known as lineage B.1.1.7, is a variant of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. The variant was first detected in the United Kingdom in October 2020 from a sample taken the previous month, and it quickly began to spread by mid-December."
  • We'll Probably Never Eliminate COVID-19 from the U.S. It's Still Worth Trying - TIME Magazine.
  • What is C.1.2, the new Covid variant in South Africa & should we be worried? - "The C.1.2 strain has scientists’ attention because it possesses mutations within the genome similar to those seen in variants of interest, like Delta."
  • What should you do if you get a breakthrough infection? Our expert weighs in - "Covid-19 vaccines are very effective against preventing infection, but no vaccine is 100% effective. Fully vaccinated people can and do become infected. It's not known exactly how many of these breakthrough infections are occurring, as the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is not collecting national data this comprehensive. Based on reports from 25 states that do keep track of these data, the Kaiser Family Foundation estimates that the rate of breakthrough infections is well below 1%."
  • What You Need to Know About COVID-19 Booster Shots - TIME Magazine.
  • Who needs COVID-19 boosters? - "The immunocompromised might be first."
  • WHO renames covid variants with Greek letters - "The World Health Organization (WHO) has announced a new naming system for variants of Covid-19. From now on the WHO will use Greek letters to refer to variants first detected in countries like the UK, South Africa and India. The UK variant for instance is labelled as Alpha, the South African Beta, and the Indian as Delta."
  • Worldwide COVID-19 death toll tops a staggering 3 million - "Covid map: Coronavirus cases, deaths, vaccinations by country."
  • You Should Still Get Vaccinated Even If You've Already Had COVID-19, Study Shows - "In one of the first large studies exploring immunity from natural infection with COVID-19, researchers in Denmark found some surprising trends - including evidence that even those who previously contracted the disease should still get vaccinated."
  • Top 3000 Coronavirus Advice, News & Resources: A-Z: